By the first birthday of the child, the child should have the first dental check-up done. The examination includes a medical and dental history, clinical examination of the oral cavity, oral hygiene and feeding instructions to the parents.
Children under the age of 4 are usually not so cooperative with the dentist. That is why they often sit on the dental chair with a parent, so that they feel safe and the dental check-up becomes easier and more enjoyable for them.
Effective oral hygiene and proper nutrition is important to prevent caries and gingivitis in children of all ages. Especially for children under 4 years old, prevention becomes even more important because dental intervention is difficult, due to the immaturity of the age and the inability to cooperate by the dentist.
Around the age of 4, or sometimes even at a younger age when indicated and if the child's cooperation is appropriate, the child has his/her first cleaning-fluoride application.
The children's teeth are cleaned with ultrasonic water to remove plaque and tartar, they are polished with a paste and finally fluoride is applied with a gel or varnish. This procedure prevents caries and gingivitis while helping the child to become familiar with the dental environment (instruments, sounds).
So he is more receptive and ready to move on to a more complex dental work, if required in the future.
Sealants are indicated at high risk children for developing caries and on teeth with deep fissures or beginning of caries. The teeth are thoroughly cleaned, carefully checked with a dental detector and a white filling (composite resin) is applied on the occlusal surface without drilling the tooth, where it covers the fissures completely. This protects the teeth from caries and significantly reduces the possibility of needing a filling.
Sealants should be inspected at least once a year for proper application in order to be 100% effective in preventing caries.
The diagnosis of caries is made either clinically during the dental examination or radiographically using the bitewings radiographs. During the clinical examination and preferably after the cleaning of the teeth, the surfaces of the teeth are checked using a detector for the presence of microcavities. For the diagnosis of caries between the teeth and for the control of the depth of the carious cavities, the bitewings X-rays are used, which reveal caries that are not visible clinically. These x-rays also give us information about the vitality of the tooth as well as the formation of roots.
The treatment for caries that has passed through the enamel and dentin but has not reached the nerve of the tooth is the composite resin restoration (white filling). After the vitality of the tooth is confirmed, local anesthesia is performed (if necessary), the tooth is isolated using a rubber dam, the decayed dentine is removed and the tooth is restored with a composite resin restoration for practical and esthetic reasons. This procedure is explained to children in advance using words appropriate to their age and maturity level.
When the caries has reached the nerve (pulp) of the tooth and when the vitality of the tooth is threatened, endodontic treatment is indicated. Endodontic treatment of primary teeth is called pulpotomy or pulpectomy and is usually completed in one session. Endodontic treatment of permanent teeth may require more than one session, depending on the condition of the nerve-pulp and is usually done by a specialist endodontist (dentist specialized in root canal treatments).
In addition, modern techniques for the treatment of deep caries lesions are direct and indirect pulp capping as well as partial pulpotomy. These techniques are more conservative treatments for deep caries and are applied when indicated.
Many children and adults have problems with tooth formation such as hypomineralisation of incisors and molars, tooth hypoplasia, deviations in size and shape of teeth, etc. These teeth are clearly more sensitive and need extra care and monitoring.
In our practice we follow the guidelines of the International Association of Dental Trauma for the treatment of all dental injuries.
When the first phase of eruption of the permanent teeth is completed around the age of 8 years (ie the eruption of the 4 upper and lower incisors and the first 4 permanent molars), the first orthodontic consultation is recommended.
Our dental clinic collaborates with an excellent orthodontist, who undertakes the orthodontic treatment of our young patients. This way we ensure a straight and bright smile to all the children who wish to.
To deal with dental anxiety, it is first necessary to investigate the causes, eg traumatic experiences, the child's personality, immaturity. The contribution of the parents during the medical and dental history is necessary, in order to enlighten us about all the data concerning the psycho-synthesis of the child.
Depending on the causes of the phobia, the way of dealing with it is defined. In general, we give the child enough time to trust us and we expose him slowly, step by step to the fearful stimulus, respecting always his pace and his limits. After all, our priority is to gain his trust and love for the dentist!
Tooth extraction is indicated for various reasons, such as orthodontic reasons, abscess or fistula, damaged / very broken tooth that is impossible to be repaired.
In any case, we explain the whole procedure to the child, using appropriate words for his age, we apply an anesthetic gel for the anesthesia of the gums and then we apply local anesthesia in a way that no “fearful” instrument is visible to him/her.
Once we make sure that the anesthesia is effective and the child does not feel pain, the tooth is extracted as fast as possible, in order to relieve the child!
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